Double was high quality more associated with high gloss ,single underline was medium grade normally semi gloss or satin type finishes and no underline was normally a flat finish. The Kodak formula for the Hardening Bath was: 100 grams of Chrome Alum dissolved in 1 pint of water. Many other brands of photo paper were also manufactured in Europe but rarely left the continent. Daniel, I can put your mind at ease on one point at least. It was said to have a new emulsion which gives much quicker development and drying times and finer grain than ever. There are no Develop Before dates on either box, Kodak U. Kodak Bromide Transferotype Paper Transferotype Bromide paper had an emulsion which could be transferred onto an opaque or transparent surface.
This surface roughness gives something for the re-touching medium to penetrate into and 'key' onto. The red and black vertical line design was changed to two offset rectangles, Kodak and Photographic Paper, in 1959 see picture below. Apart from Kodak D-163, other black and white print developers could be used, viz: Kodak Universal, a concentrated liquid developer. It was a slow, silver chloride paper which could be handled before exposure even under weak electric light or yellow gaslight. As far as can be ascertained, Kodak Verichrome film was first sold in some format or another, as long ago as 1930.
Velvet had a slight surface texture with a very slight gloss finish. It was a warm toned paper manufactured by Kodak in the 1930s, before Bromesko. By early 1930 Weber had some 110 different makes and qualities on offer. After drying, the print and its support were soaked in water and squeegeed together with a roller face to face, the front of the print facing the support. When the provenance of a gelatin silver print is unknown or in question, examination of the physical properties of the photograph is the first step in establishing a plausible date range.
Great efforts were made to distinguish the artistic quality inherent in real photos from that of halftone reproductions. The presence of a photographers name is not a definite indication of when a card was made or even who made it. Other sizes to special order. Originally known as 'Albumen' printing paper, it became commonly known as Printing Out Paper or P. Gold toning created a red to purple brown cast or a blue black. It was essential to use a non-hardening fixer with Transferotype. From then on, the Eastman Kodak Company, and later, Kodak Limited London, manufactured Velox Paper.
This means that the presence of a photographer's or magazine's stamp does not in and of itself indicate the photo is vintage or original. The simplicity of the process made it very attractive to amateur photographers. Collodion emulsions produced prints with a very fine tonal range and sharp details. Another two, not included in the 10, were to keep their old codes and the boxes and packets were sealed with the previous pre-1947 labels such as shown on this box. White, Semi-Matt was available in Bromide, Bromesko and, at that time, the new Veribrom resin coated black and white papers. All in Double Weight base only. There were at least ten variants of the formula, the most well known being D-76b and D-76d.
The difference in image tone between Royal Bromesko and Bromesko papers was very noticeable, even when processed in the standard Kodak paper developer, D-163. Kodak Velox developer, which gave a blue black tone. Observing this shiny crust, no mater what the color, is a quick and sure way of telling if you are looking at a real photo. D-163 could also be used for the rapid development of roll and sheet films, at three to four minutes at 68°F. An early type of developer in use in 1923. The base supports of Royal-X Pan and Kodak Process films were changed to polyester later in 1966. This was very popular at resorts and amusement parks where many photographers took up residence.
This paper is likely to date from 1947 until the early 1950s. A contact print was made by simply laying that large negative onto a sheet of Velox photo paper and exposing to light to burn the positive image onto the paper. As far as Michael Talbert can ascertain, Velox developer was manufactured by Kodak in the U. Two new papers were known as: Bromide Royal Snow White Bromide Royal Snow White Fine Grain. Kodak gave a formula of ½ ounce photographic gelatine dissolved in 12 fluid ounces of water. Bromide Royal White became Bromide Royal Ivory White Bromide Royal White Fine Grain became Bromide Royal Ivory White Fine Grain. By contrast, standards that emerged from the papermaking industry had a small impact on sizes of silver gelatin paper.
Very early black and white print developers include Kodol, a highly concentrated developer suitable for all types of photographic material Early developers also include Kodak Special developer, which became known as D-157 and later, after a formula change, D-163. After transfer, the transferred print on its new support backing, were treated in a Hardening Bath of 2% Chrome Alum and washed for a few minutes before drying. D-163 was a general purpose black and white print developer for processing Kodak enlarging papers. By 1969, the Ivory tinted paper was no longer sold in the Bromide range of papers, although Kodak continued to make Bromesko Ivory Fine Lustre paper until the mid 1970s. A D-76 film developer tin dating from the 1940s to 1950s. Many photographers and publishers included their mailing address in the photo stamp.